In 2014, around 3,300 animal and plant species in the fauna and flora of its biomes were threatened with extinction in Brazil, according to a study published on Thursday by IBGE (5).
The work “Ecosystem Accounts: Endangered Species” analyzed 16,645 species between animals and plants and came to the conclusion that 3,299 were threatened.
There are currently 49,168 plant species and 117,096 animals recognized in Brazil. The analyzes were carried out on the basis of existing studies with information on the conservation status.
The survey is carried out every five years and published in the form of a ministerial decree. As the 2019 list is not yet ready, this is the latest official data that exists in the country.
In the universe of the species analyzed, 0.06% are considered completely extinct, 0.01% are threatened with extinction in the wild, 4.73% are threatened with extinction, 9.35% are in danger, 5.74% are endangered, 3 98% are almost critically endangered, 62.82% are less of a concern and 13.33% have insufficient data.
In the study, endangered, endangered and critically endangered species were classified as threatened.
According to IBGE, the study analyzed the lists of official national species in 2014 and the ratings of their conservation published by the ICMBio (Chico Mendes Institute for the Conservation of Biodiversity) and the National Flora Conservation Center of the Botanical Garden of Rio de Janeiro ( CNCFlora / JBRJ).
Among all biomes, Pantanal and Amazônia had the highest proportion of species in the least worrying category at 88.7% and 84.8% and the lowest proportion of threatened species at 3.8% and 4.68%.
According to the study, there are 54 endangered species in the Pantanal and 278 in the Amazon in absolute terms.
The Atlantic Forest has the highest total number of threatened species, measured in terms of fauna and flora (1,989). The greatest number of species were also proportionally rated, with 25% of the biome being in threatened categories.
Another 12% of Atlantic forest species belong to a category with insufficient data.
The biome still has a high percentage of threatened species in the terrestrial flora, of which 42.5% fall into this category.
One of the extinct species in the biome is the northeastern Curassow, whose survival depends on captive breeding programs.
Cerrado and Caatinga are two other biomes with a high proportion of threatened species with 19.7% (1,061 species) and 18.2% (366 species) respectively. Next comes the pampas with 14.5% (194 species).
The publication suggests that at least ten species are extinct, such as the Eskimo curlew, the northeastern hawker, the northeastern leaf cleaner, the great red breast, the little blue macaw, and the Pernambuco-Caburé.
Also classified as endangered amphibian with green border, the Nordic mammal rat, and the marine fish shark tooth needle and shark lizard.
In September IBGE had already published another part of the “Ecosystem Accounts” survey, in which the effects of human activity on the national biomes were shown.
The Amazon lost an area of 270,000 km² between 2000 and 2018. During this period, 8% of its area in the world’s largest tropical forest disappeared, mainly replaced by pastureland.
The study showed that the reduction in forest vegetation in the Amazon during the period studied was the greatest among natural coverages of Brazilian biomes.
The pastureland increased by 71% from 249,000 km² in 2000 to 426,000 km² in 2018, which, according to IBGE, shows a fragmentation of the region’s landscape.
The losses in the Amazon were not the only ones among the Brazilian terrestrial biomes between 2000 and 2018. In total, a natural area of almost 500,000 km² disappeared from the national territory.
A 2019 UN report indicated that at least 1 million species of animals and plants are threatened with extinction. This poses a serious threat to ecosystems that humans around the world depend on in order to survive the United Nations’ comprehensive panorama.
The conclusions were that in most terrestrial habitats, from the savannas of Africa to the rainforests of South America, the average abundance of animal and plant species has decreased by 20% or more over the past hundred years.